Wildlife Wednesday – deer tracking

When we first moved to Norfolk, I can remember walking round the garden and seeing a small deer scampering away from me into the undergrowth. Ever since then, I have tried many times to capture this creature on camera – most of the time this has not been particularly successful, however recently I changed my tactics and now finally have some videos to share!

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The deer which are most common in the woods and fields surrounding where I live are muntjac – these are not native to Britain: they were introduced from China in the 20th century as an ornamental species. Being an invasive species they don’t actually do much good in the niche they have filled in the ecosystem – rare plant species and woodland birds have suffered as a result of their release.

However, they are still a part of the wildlife in Norfolk and have proved to be very useful while I find my feet with tracking larger mammals in their natural habitat.

Standing at around 50cm in height, muntjac have short legs and relatively long bodies, meaning that they are quite low to the ground. The patch of white underneath their tails is unlike that of other deer in that it is a vertical stripe and cannot be seen when the tail is lowered.

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There are various signs that muntjac leave in their habitat which can be used to determine their presence.

The first of these is footprints: as shown in the picture below, these would at first glance appear to be just like the prints of other UK deer species, but there is a significant difference in the size of them, with muntjac prints not generally exceeding three centimetres in length.

I found these ones at the side of a ditch – the deer would either have been stopping there for a drink or may have just been crossing over.

Another sign is the characteristic paths formed when the deer repeatedly use the same route through the undergrowth – this particular one shown here has been there since I first saw it four years ago! When the surrounding foliage is taller, these paths create tunnel-like structures.

Muntjac deer also bark – to the untrained ear this can sound similar to a dog, but it is a rougher, lower sound. I often hear muntjac barking if they have been disturbed.

When heading out to watch the deer, I set off in the evening at around half past seven. At the moment it begins to get dark at around half past eight, so this gives me an hour to walk and observe.

I felt that the evening was a better time than early morning as I never see anyone in the woods at night, whereas there are often dog walkers and game keepers in the earlier hours.

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The route I have been using takes me around to the far side of the wood – I don’t really know if this has an effect on my success with finding the deer, but I feel less exposed than if I were to enter the woods by walking down the main path.

Once in the woods, I try my absolute hardest to walk quietly… when wearing wellington boots this is much easier said than done! (My walking boots are currently in Manchester). I walk quite slowly, taking care with where I place my feet to ensure that I don’t snap any twigs underneath them.

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If I see a deer, the best thing I can do is stand very still. I usually walk with my camera set up and ready for action, so I simply have to press one button and then just watch. You will see in the video at the end of this post some very wobbly filming where I am moving in an attempt to get a better view of the deer but have disturbed them in the process… I have since learnt that it is much better to just remain still and quiet.

Considering that these were the first few occasions on which I went out specifically to watch deer, I’m pretty pleased with how the footage turned out.

In the coming weeks I hope that I may be able to travel a little further afield to find some other species. There have been deer other than muntjac in my area, but sightings of them are rare.

Last year I accidentally disturbed a large deer: as it ran off into the trees I realised that it was a little bit too tall and leggy to be a muntjac, so my next guess is that it was a roe deer. Despite keeping my eye out, I haven’t seen a deer that size since…

About two years ago I also came across this fawn – clearly I didn’t want to get too close and I didn’t have a decent camera at the time, so this photograph is terribly blurred but I believe that this could be a roe deer? Maybe some of my readers can enlighten me!

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I hope you enjoyed today’s post on Wild Call – maybe you might feel inspired to go on a deer watching adventure of your own…

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Dog agility – improving the tunnel and weaves

Over the past couple of weeks, Rusty and I have been working specifically on the tunnel and the weave poles.

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She has done so much jumping over the past few years that as a result she is now really confident with it and will automatically run ahead of me to a jump if I give her a clear signal. However she has not had quite as much practice with the tunnel and the weaves due to them taking longer to set up (I sometimes just do jumping).

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To fix this I have begun to teach her that she can move further away from me with these obstacles and that I don’t have to lead her right up to them every time they are part of our course. It will take some time for her to learn this, but we have made a start and I have already seen lots of improvement which is pleasing!

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When I was teaching her to be more independent with the jumps, I would carry her toy and throw it as she left the ground to encourage her to be more forward thinking. This could potentially work with other obstacles too but it does present some problems – for example when she is inside the tunnel she can’t see the ball being thrown, and throwing it too early whilst she is weaving might lead to her picking up bad habits such as skipping the last poles to chase it.

I also don’t want her to rush the weaves at this stage: she is still finding her feet with them and if I ask her to run too quickly she gets confused and sometimes trips up.

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Instead of throwing the ball, I asked her to sit in front of the obstacle and then dropped it at the other end before telling her either ‘tunnel’ or ‘weave’. She still got the idea of moving ahead to the target, but didn’t rush.

Whilst reading on the internet about the weave poles, I realised that I have been spacing them incorrectly. Having moved them a few inches further apart, Rusty’s technique has improved a huge amount (the video at the end of this post shows this).

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Another tactic to give her a bit more energy coming into the obstacle is to place a jump before it. Obviously if we were doing the obstacles as part of a sequence she would already be going fairly quickly, so I did this to imitate that situation whilst still focusing specifically on the two particular obstacles.

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At one point this actually resulted in Rusty skipping the tunnel, as she gained a lot of speed after the jump and missed my directions. I took her back and she completed it the second time round without any problems, however this does show a clear difference in the way in which she treats the tunnel – if there had been a jump there instead I’m pretty sure she would have flown over it without needing much telling!

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I was also pleased to see that at one point she almost skipped the tunnel, but then corrected herself and ran through. The pictures below sort of show this, but I’ve added the clip to the video at the end of this post as well.

You may notice in the video that I did use the clicker in some of the clips (they were filmed over a couple of days). I’m still working on getting Rusty used to this, but this won’t require too much effort as it just means that I have to make sure I always give her a treat after clicking. I clicked too late in some instances – I kept forgetting, so sometimes she had her treat before hearing the click… It definitely gives me something to work on though.

Thank you for reading today’s post on Wild Call; I’ll be back in a few days time for Wildlife Wednesday so stay tuned!

Wildlife Wednesday – exploring the garden pond

As of today, I am beginning a new series of my blog posts. These will be released every Wednesday and will focus on the wildlife around my home in Norfolk.

In the first of these I will be taking a look at the life in our garden pond: since I used my GoPro to film underwater a couple of months ago I have been really excited to take a closer look at the organisms residing there.

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Armed with my cameras, a net, waterproof notebook and a couple of plastic tubs, I set about extracting organisms from different areas of the pond. It is amazing just how much life there is below the surface – the amount of times I have walked past the pond and not even given it a second thought is ridiculous!

The pond does seem to dry out each summer, which lead me to wonder how so much life exists there if it cannot be supported all year round. Having done some research, I have learnt that any creatures that can fly will often leave and then return when the water levels are up again. Some types of larvae can burrow into damp mud in order to survive, but the other organisms are likely to die. They are reintroduced to the pond by accidentally being carried over by visiting birds or mammals.

Unfortunately I do not have identification books for pond life (I really ought to invest in some keys to help me), so I apologise in advance if I have made any mistakes in this post.

The most common creature that I came across was mosquito larvae. I was able to identify this easily due to the way that these organisms hang vertically in the water, and their particular swimming pattern.

The picture below shows two mosquito larvae at different stages in their development. The one on the right hand side is younger and more curled up than the older one on the left hand side.

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I believe that the next creature is a caddisfly larva – initially I was unsure, but then I saw some of them inside ‘cases’. Normally these are constructed using tiny pieces of plant and grains of sand, however I saw cases made out of flat leaves: this is a distinctive feature of the mottled sedge caddisfly larvae.

On the surface of the pond I observed pond skaters and whirligig beetles. Before I began to read about pond skaters I was unaware of the fact that they are actually predators that target other animals that have fallen onto the surface of the pond. They also scavenge on dead animals.

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Whirligig beetles usually stay near the surface, however if they happen to be disturbed they will swim underwater. In the video at the bottom of this post you can see that the whirligig beetle I discovered must have felt threatened by my presence, as it swam to the bottom of the container I placed it in. (In the interest of the welfare of all of these creatures, I tried to limit the time they spent away from the pond to just a few minutes).

This picture of the whirligig beetle isn’t of particularly good quality – they move so fast that it is difficult to capture them at all…

Whirligig beetle

Just below the surface I came across the common water flea. These transparent filter feeders are abundant in the pond and provide an important food source for beetle larvae.

Common water flea

I initially thought that the next organism was a leech, but was relieved to discover that I was wrong! It is a flatworm, and whilst it is a predator, it wouldn’t have been interested in me as it prefers to feed on larvae and larger dead organisms.

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The picture below shows the common water slater: these are mistakenly believed to be an indicator of polluted water, however this is not true (they are just particularly tolerant of low oxygen levels).

Water slater

In the shallows amongst the plants there were numerous pond snails (I am not entirely sure of the exact species). Many people think that these reduce pollution in the pond but this is not strictly true; whilst the snails do ingest a lot of material, they simply recycle it into other forms – so the pollutants are not actually being removed from the ecosystem.

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Much of the life in water is too small to be seen with the naked eye: I feel that I have probably only seen the tip of the iceberg with the amount of life that exists in our pond.

Despite seeming like an entire ecosystem by itself, the pond is not isolated from the world around it. The diversity of life under the surface supports many other groups of animal – for example garden birds, frogs, toads, bats and grass snakes.

The video below shows some of the video clips I gathered whilst pond-dipping. Some were taken using the GoPro in the pond, whereas others were filmed whilst the animals were away from the pond.

I hope that you enjoyed the first post in my new ‘Wildlife Wednesday’ series – stay tuned for more exciting discoveries next week!

 

(The following website was used in the writing of this blog post: freshwaterhabitats.org.uk )

Introducing clicker training

I recently decided to try using clicker training with Rusty; I have always been interested in this method but didn’t really know much about it and always thought that we got on just fine without. Of course, we have managed perfectly well without using a clicker, but I feel that it could prove to be an incredibly versatile tool as I begin to expand Rusty’s repertoire of tricks and as her skills in agility become more advanced.

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The use of a clicker is not confined to dogs – it can be applied to the training of many different animals, including horses and birds (I am hoping that I might be able to use this with some of the other animals too). A friend of mine did a sort of work experience day in a zoo where she got to help out with the big cats: they used clicker training there too. Zoo animals are often trained to present various parts of their body so that they can be examined easily without having to anaesthetise them (for example, to check that their teeth are in good health).

The main reason why clicker training is much better than simply using verbal praise is that the clicker produces a consistent sound which never changes, whereas the human voice will vary in tone and volume, so although we may be repeating the same word it will never quite sound the same to the dog.

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The clicker also enables the exact moment of good behaviour to be understood by the dog – often when Rusty does a good thing I spend a few seconds praising her, which could potentially lead to her becoming confused as to the exact moment when she got it right – but with a clicker, the good behaviour can be marked instantly without interrupting the task being performed by the dog.

Over the past couple of days, I have begun to incorporate the clicker into my training with Rusty. As she has never worked with one before, I am starting off by asking her for simple commands that she knows well, which I reward with a click, followed by a treat. Every single click must then result in her receiving a treat; if this is not done consistently then the clicker will lose its effect.

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As well as really easy commands, I asked her for some tricks that she knows well. The video below shows our first few attempts at using the clicker (I have no objection to showing our journey, but please bear in mind that I am new to this and did make a few mistakes, for example clicking slightly too late). We did some agility obstacles using the clicker, however I didn’t video this. Next time we do agility training I will make sure to take some footage – I feel that this method will work particularly well with the training of weave poles.

Another thing that I would like to point out here is that I worked on this in a couple of different environments – this is to ensure that Rusty knows that the same rules apply wherever we are. We had some builders working nearby in the outdoor clips as well: these provided the perfect opportunity for Rusty to learn not to become distracted and remain focused on me. Over the next few weeks I am also planning to take the clicker on our walks.

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Obviously at the moment I am using commands that Rusty knows well to teach her the meaning of the clicker, but once I start to teach her new tricks, the idea is to use the clicker until she knows the command and responds every time, and then phase it out due to it no longer being needed.

I will continue to work on this and may have a go with some of the other animals as well, so expect to see more blog posts about clicker training as we progress!